Problem-solving The first example presents a problem that needs to be solved. However the problem seems to be broad without clear goals. It is ill-defined because it does not have a clear path to a solution but the solution strategy must be identified by the problem solver (Pretz Naples & Sternberg 2003). For example we have to find out first if taking the classes depend on the car and if there are no other means to get to class. We also need to find out if the car will be worn out before the classes are completed. It is easy to identify a vague problem but it is hard to define the exact contents of the problem. The second one is a problem that is easy to recognize with a clear-cut solution: a Mid-Term Essay needs to be written for a class. This problem is well-defined because it needs needs of all students so that students can work together despite their differences. It is also likely that data collected would allow for gathering in-depth information that may be observational (qualitative) or quantitative (surveys). To achieve this descriptive research approach is the most appropriate. Moreover this approach can be helpful in identifying variables for future research. References Anastas J. (2012). Research Design for Social Work and the Human Services. New York: Columbia University Press. Bordens K. & Abbott B. (2013). Research design and methods: A process approach (8th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill. Cargan L. (2007). Doing social research. Lanham Md.: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. Cawthon S. W. (2001). Teaching Strategies in Inclusive Classrooms with Deaf Students. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education 6(3) 212-225. doi:10.1093/deafed/6.3.212 Chandra S. & Sharma R. (2007). Research in Education. New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers and Distributors (P) Ltd. Groundwater-Smith S. & Campbell A. (2010). Action research in education. London: Sage.
Write a 6-8 page essay which identifies some of the aspects of Constructivist Theory, Problem Solving and Critical Thinking. Give examples of how they are used in learning activities and how effective they may be. How would you include and incorporate these theories and concepts in your teaching?